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As web applications become more and more powerful and sophisticated, it is expected that they function and act just like a windows application. The basic architecture for a web application is that most of the source code and assemblies reside and are processed on a web server. The sole task of a web server is to accept incoming HTTP requests and to return the requested resource in an HTTP response. There is never a continuous live connection between the client’s browser and the web server. Web pages will always be in the form of HTML.
The two main benefits of client-side scripting are:
AngularJS: an open-source web application framework maintained by Google and a community of individual developers and corporations that aims to simplify both development and testing of singe-page applications. Angular uses an MVC framework, along with components commonly used in rich internet applications.
Capuccino: an open source application development framework for developing web applications that look and feel like Mac OS X desktop applications. Cappuccino consists of two distinct components: the Objective-J programming language, and an object-oriented library that is the Objective-J port of several Cocoa frameworks.
Echo: a platform for building web-based applications using a component-oriented and event-driven API. Developed by NextApp, Echo helps to build applications that approach the capabilities of rich clients.
Handlebars: a semantic web template system, started by Yehuda Katz of Ember.js. Handlebars is a superset of Mustache, and can render Mustache templates in addition to Handlebars templates. Handlebars adds extensibility and minimal logic., distinguishing it from Mustache, a logicless templating language.
JavaWebToolkit: an open source widget-centric web application framework for Java. JWT aims to benefit from the stateful component model used in desktop applications APIs, applied to web development, instead of the traditional MVC model. Instead of using MVC at the level of a page, MVC is pushed to the level of individual components.
jQuery: an open source cross-platform library, jQuery is designed to simplify the client-side scripting of HTML. jQuery is designed to make it easier to navigate a document, select DOM elements, create animations, handle events, and develop Ajax applications.
Kendo UI: an HTML5, jQuery-based framework for building web apps. Kendo features various UI widgets, including a rich data visualization framework, an auto-adaptive mobile framework, and tools for HTML5 app development, such as data source, templates, MVVM, drag-and-drop component.